Thursday, June 4, 2020

Censoring Young Adult Literature - Free Essay Example

Raise your hand if you have never heard of the word ?rape, called out my sixth grade teacher as she introduced Harper Leers To Kill a Mockingbird. Luckily, my best friend briskly intercepted my eager, curious hand and adamantly shook her head. It was one of those moments that turns your cheeks warm and etches itself into your memory, taunting you for years to come. After sensing the look on my puzzled, rose-colored face, she reassured me while signaling that she would disclose the mystery term at a later time. Whether we would like to admit it to ourselves or not, the world today is filled with intolerance that is all too prevalent in forms of mass-shootings, sexual assaults, and hate speech that we are reminded of each time we tune into the news. I look back fondly on the days where my eyes were unscathed by the harsh realities of a world in which we turn a blind eye to those that look, think, speak, or worship differently than we do. Sadly, my twelve-year old self would have likely encountered the meaning of this once mystery word all too soon, regardless of whether or not my teacher had prompted the discussion in our classroom that day. Novels such as To Kill a Mockingbird serve as windows from which readers can examine controversial topics and perspectives that may differ from their own personal experiences (Denzin, p. 8). Yet, these works are frequently included on the laundry list of books that are banned from classrooms across the country in hopes of censoring the information that our young adults are consuming. Although those who contend books in the classroom are not necessarily ill-intentioned, it prompts us to examine how this reveals a host of questions regarding who holds power over our classrooms and whether filtering knowledge is a productive and beneficial process for our students. A Look at Targeted Books The American Library Association (ALA) defines censorship as the attempt to restrict a personrs right to read, view, listen to, and disseminate constitutionally protected ideas (ALA, 2012). The ALA sponsors banned book week annually, in order to unite the literary community against censorship by celebrating and embracing books that cross boundaries. As Americans, we boast a land of freedom and opportunity, however, when engaging in the process of selectively choosing material which students are permitted access to, we are actively violating our own First Amendment rights (Raskin, p. 64). Most often, the books are removed from classrooms and libraries due to profane word(s), a particular lifestyle, or a concept that may be deemed as offensive to certain parties or groups of people (Boyd et. al, p. 656). In response to his novel, Looking for Alaskars appearance on the banned book list, John Green unpacks the misconception that books corrupt people and encourages readers to open books with a lens of accepting a challenge (Hauser, 2017). Greenrs novel has been added to the list time and time again labeled with so-called pornographic content. In response, the author makes the point that books, including his own, are often targeted based off of one page that is taken out of context of the piece as a whole. In this case, critics wag their finger at one particular scene which contains sexually explicit content in order to illustrate the point that it is not required in order to develop a strong, emotional partnership (Hauser, 2017). Ironically, people who dismiss this book immediately due to one isolated scene are denying the presence of a beneficial message to young adults that physical demonstrations of affection are not the sole form of human connection. The Adolescent Profile Parents and policy-makers often point to the impressionability and vulnerability which characterize the teenaged-years as they decipher which books contain content that merits elimination from the curriculum (Freedman et. al., p 357). When considering the adolescent profile, it is important to remember that they are in the thick of self-discovery, navigating daily situations that prompt them to question identity, spirituality, and a host of values that make us who we are. Although most would express an interest for students to learn about thought-provoking topics in the nurturing environment of the class walls, 52 percent of the most-often banned or challenged books from 2000 to 2014 either addressed issues of race, sexuality, or disability, or included characters who are non-White, LGBTQ, or have disabilities (Flannery, 2015). While teachers have a great deal of control over students during the school hours, it is not possible to censor or protect what they will encounter beyond the school building. If the majority of texts that portray diversity are being excluded from the libraries, it is clear that many of our adolescents will not have held discussions in a constructive environment that open their eyes to situations, people, and ideas that are prevalent all around us. In a stage of life which is consistently recognized as a time of exploration, it is critical that we are providing insights into experiences which they are bound to encounter, so that students are given the opportunity to develop thoughts, opinions, and value-systems. The Implications of Censorship Literature serves as a key into a new world which contains stories and experiences that both reflect our own and also ones that take us on the road less-traveled. Arguably, the most important part of being an educator is teaching students to be critical, passionate consumers of content, whether it be through social media platforms, digital content, or print information (Freedman et. al. p. 365) Yet, by dictating a prescriptive curriculum, this is sending a message that undermines teacher professionalism and inhibits their abilities to teach students who they know on a personal basis. When teachers arent free to offer ?controversial materials to supplement the content the state has endorsed without fear of repercussions, students experience a diminished range of ideas One reason for exposing students to material some people regard as controversial is to stimulate a cornucopia of images and arguments. Another is to let students practice the art of forming their own opinions. As one judge observed about controversial books, the reactions they elicit are ?what makes them worth reading (Ross, p.113). In order to help our students develop voice, assert opinions, and critically analyze issues of social justice, it is imperative that the teacher is permitted to appropriately share content that students are excited to read (Denzin, p. 10). The topics that peak student interest, along with realistically any reader, is content that contains conflict and takes us along the journey of how the characters in the story go about responding to the action in the story. What Censorship Reveals Indeed, our classrooms serve as a microcosm of the beliefs and values of our Nation, as the standards are controlled by state government (Lent, p. 63). By excluding novels such as The Outsiders, The Hunger Games, Lord of the Flies, Perks of Being a Wallflower, and so on, we are sending a message to students that reveals that we are uncomfortable to engage in discussions that make us uncomfortable, including themes such as racism, gender-identity, religion, among others. In order to cultivate classrooms that embrace diversity and freedom of expression, maintaining transparency with our students is critical (Sulzer et. al., p. 164). The books included on the American Library Association website each year do not as much indicate our yearning to lookout for our students, but rather , they demonstrate how we internalize our very own insecurities and prejudices (ALA, 2012). It is important to recognize the topics that cause some discomfort or controversy, while simultaneously presenting the content to students in an unbiased, appropriate manner. By letting go of the desire to remove books off of our students shelves, we may cultivate groups of students that are increasingly aware and tolerant of those who hold different views and life experiences. When teachers present novels containing themes dubbed as taboo, they are doing no more than revealing the times that we live in and extending an invitation to students to become inquisitive, active readers that critically examine alternative perspectives and ideas (Hauser, 2017). In a commentary on censorship, Boyd and Bailey draw a connection between censored material and a barbed wire fence. When protecting students in an unsolicited manner, we illuminate how censors evoke barriers to free thought and speech when they block knowledge acquisition, intellectual development, as well as creative and critical thinking by calling for books to be removed from libraries, classrooms, schools, and districts (Boyd et. al., p. 655). I feel fortunate to have gained exposure to particularly difficult topics within the nurturing walls of the classroom prior to inevitably stumbling upon situations in the harsh realities of the world. As we assist in shaping the next generation, it is imperative that we assure that they are equipped with the knowledge, tools, and skills that enable them to critically evaluate contentious content in order to take action against issues regarding social justice.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Democracy and Accountability Making the Transition from...

The need to acquire human rights can, at times, motivate social and political groups to move mountains. In the 1980s, authoritarian regimes were representative of these large obstacles. This struggle is not new to Latin Americans. Throughout their history, from slavery, which still exists today, to political and religious oppression, Latin Americans have continually fought to gain basic human rights. Americans have come to see these rights as rooted in life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, expanding social-political views have extended views of basic human rights into the realms of education and healthcare, to name a couple. In countries such as Brazil, the authoritarian†¦show more content†¦Political extremists from both the left and right wings of the spectrum held a deep mistrust of one another. The Cold War, a politically ideological shadow war fought on a global scale, left no nation on Earth unaffected. In 1959, communists, a leftist political based ideology, won Cuba. A guerilla army, led by charismatic leaders such as Fidel Castro, had defeated a professional army. Where alliances had always been fragile between the left and the right, a growing fear of communist takeovers made the left increasingly vulnerable to political and social polarization. Even politicians in the center, often thought as the bridge between the left and the right, began to distance themselves from those associated with communism or socialism. Since the nineteenth century, Latin American militaries have held both the honorary and mythological position of caretaker for their states. In times of severe economic, political, or social crisis, the professional militaries have seen it as their duty to assume temporary power in order to provide directional relief to national problems. In Chile and Brazil, high-ranking military officers proved able to transition their democratic regimes to authoritarian regimes with the assistance of the conservative (rightist) political base. In the 1952 Chilean presidential elections, General Carlos Ibanez, a former dictator, positioned himself as the only answer to Chileans’ problems andShow MoreRelatedPost-Transitional Justice in Chile and El Salvador: A Comparison1671 Words   |  7 PagesDuring the last quarter of the twentieth century, Latin America was dominated by authoritarian military regimes and immense human rights violations. Especially in Chile and El Salvador, where human rights abuses were rampant during Pinochet’s dictatorship and the Salvadoran civil war. The region is still dealing with the legacy of terror from its authoritarian past. Cath Collins, a professor and researcher in the School of Political Science at the University of Diego Portales in Santiago, Chile,Read MoreThe Political Regime Of Russia2466 Words   |  10 PagesIntroduction Russia has endured a long and substantial history of political regime changes from being a tsarist state, to adopting communism, to a post-communist transition era, and today may be in the process of democratic transition. Russia’s extensive political history is key to understanding the ever-changing political processes within the state. To understand the regime structure in Russia today we must assess and understand their political history, look at critical junctures in Soviet andRead MoreDemocracy in the 20th Centuries Essay1446 Words   |  6 PagesIs democracy possible? Modern democracies have continually developed throughout the 20th century. These democracies have culminated from revolutions,wars, and even economic development. As democracies continue to grow democracy promotion has been a key issue for world governments, especially the United State of America. History has shown that building democracy is a very strenuous and a difficult task to accomplish. With the inception of government, democracy has been a seemingly difficult conceptRead MoreEssay On Advocacy Groups870 Words   |  4 Pagescontribute to the process of democratic consolidation by restraining the exercise of state power, extending and protecting civil liberties and political rights, promoting political participation, broadening and democratising public policy-making, ensuring public accountability and providing spaces for democratic deliberation, interest aggregation, interest articulation and representation among other functions. After more than two decades of democratisation in both countries, the democratic spaces and platformsRead MoreEssay on Political Corruption2339 Words   |  10 Pagesinstitutions that govern them? The question of public tolerance of political corruption has assessed from different approaches. Some scholars, for instance, focus on the direct link between citizens and organization/leaders based on clientelism, nepotism, cronyism, and other informal ways of wealth redistribution (Kurer, O. 1993, Rose –Ackerman 1999 p. 11). Other works approach the problem of tolerance from cultural, religion and even legal system perspectives (.C. C. E. Chang and Chu Y 2006; JohnstonRead MoreThe Aftermath of Socialism in Eastern Europe2256 Words   |  9 PagesEurope came with hope and high expectations from the world at large. Many people awaited the justification of the liberal democratic model in the emerging social and political environments. The concept of civil society that had been idealized by many western European and American nations was central to the discourse of transformation. It represented the voice of the hitherto marginalized and repressed people who were expected to e merge from the ruined regime of state-organized collectivity. There wasRead MoreThe Republic Of Union Of Myanmar1613 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The Golden Land of Myanmar†. It has a diverse population of around 51 millions. Despite its size and strategic location, Myanmar is also the poorest country in the region, with around one quarter of its population estimated to be living in poverty. From 1962 to 2011, the country was ruled by a military junta that suppressed almost all dissent and wielded absolute power in the face of international condemnation and sanctions. In fact, it is the longest-lasting military dictatorship in the world andRead MoreThe Reasons Why South Africa Is Successful2853 Words   |  12 PagesAfrica (SA) stands out among the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa in terms of levels of development and the degrees of democracy. It is now regarded as the emerging middle power in the African continent. I argue that South Africa’s place in the economic world also has different implications to different populations in this nation state. Nigeria on the other hand, has failed to sustain democracy and economic development. In this paper, I am going to critically analyze the reasons why South Af rica is relativelyRead MoreThe Great Surge By Economist Steve Radelet1424 Words   |  6 PagesVictoria Case Paper # 4 The Great Surge In The Great Surge, economist Steve Radelet, provides examples of progress emerging nations measured in four scopes: poverty, revenue, health and education, and democracy. The Great Surge offers a pleasant contrast to the quick selling theme in many books and articles regarding a lack of advancement, insisting that standards of living globally have improved greatly since the 60s, and even faster since the 90s, after many factors that stunted progress were eliminatedRead MoreFactors Affecting The Electoral Elections Of Zimbabwe And South Africa1345 Words   |  6 PagesAfter just twenty years of attainment of national independence from United Kingdom, in the year 2000, Zimbabwe experienced what can only be termed a major setback in its transition to democracy. Without threat of defeat from opposition parties, the ruling party ZANU PF had enjoyed dominance in Zimbabwe, where they enjoyed victory after victory in elections. Zimbabwe Parliamentary Elections of 2000 saw ZANU PF face form idable opposition from the newly formed Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). However

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

MANAGERIAL REPORT Essay Example For Students

MANAGERIAL REPORT Essay INTRODUCTIONThe purpose of this analysis was to develop a regression model to predict mortality. Data was collected, by researchers at General Motors, on 60 U.S. Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs), in a study of whether air pollution contributes to mortality. This data was obtained and randomly sorted into two even groups of 30 cities. A regression model to predict mortality was build from the first set of data and validated from the second set of data. BODYThe following data was found to be the key drivers in the model:? Mean July temperature in the city (degrees F)? Mean relative humidity of the city? Median education? Percent of white collar workers? Median income? Suffer dioxide pollution potentialThe objective in this analysis was to find the line on a graph, using the variables mentioned above, for which the squared deviations between the observed and predicted values of mortality are smaller than for any other straight line model, assuming the differences between the observed and predicted values of mortality are zero. Once found, this ?Least Squared Line? can be used to estimate mortality given any value of above data or predict mortality for any value of above data. Each of the key data elements was checked for a bell shaped symmetry about the mean, the linear (straight line) nature of the data when graphed and equal squares of deviations of measurements about the mean (variance). After determining whether to exclude data p oints, the following model was determined to be the best model:-3276.108 + 862.93551 25.375822 + 0.5992133 + 0.02396484 + 0.018949075 41.165296 + 0.31470587 +See list of independent variables on TAB #1. This model was validated against the second set of data where it was determined that, with 95% confidence, there is significant evidence to conclude that the model is useful for predicting mortality. Although this model, when validated, is deemed suitable for estimation and prediction, as noted by the 5% error ratio (TAB #2), there are significant concerns about the model. First, although the percent of sample variability that can be explained by the model, as noted by the R? value on TAB #3, is 53.1%, after adjusting this value for the number ofparameters in the model, the percent of explained variability is reduced to 38.2% (TAB #3). The remaining variability is due to random error. Second, it appears that some of the independent variables are contributing redundant information due to the correlation with other independent variables, known as multicollinearity. Third, it was determined that an outlying observation (value lying more than three standard deviations from the mean) was influencing the estimatedcoefficients. In addition to the observed problems above, it is unknown how the sample data was obtained. It is assumed that the values of the independent variables were uncontrolled indicating observational data. With observational data, a statistically significant relationship between a response y and a predictor variable x does not necessarily imply a cause and effect relationship. This is why having a designed experiment would produce optimum results. By having a designed experiment, we could, for instance, control the time period that the data corresponds to. Data relating to a longer period of time would certainly improve the consistency of the data. This would nullify the effect of any extreme or unusual data for the current time period. Also, assuming that white collar workers are negatively correlated with pollution, we do not know how the cities were selected. The optimal selection of cities would include an equal number of white collar cities and non white collar cities. !Furthermore, a ssuming a correlation of high temperature and mortality, an optimal selection of cities would include an equal number of northern cities and southern cities. Cultural Diversity In Healthcare EssayMODEL TESTINGThe model was validated for predicting and estimating mortality with the following hypothesis test:H : Allcoefficients in the model are equal to zero. ( 1 =2 = . = k = 0)Ha: At least one of thecoefficients is not equal to zero. Rejection Region: F ; F (where the distribution of F depends on k numerator df and n (k + 1) denominator dfTest Statistic: Mean Square for model= R?/kwhere, n = number of observations Mean Square for error(1 R?)/ k = number of parameters (excluding intercept)Substitution (TAB #3): =.531026 / 7=3.5587(1 .5301)/ Decision: Reject HConclusion: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that at least one of the variables is good to estimate mortality. Confidence Interval:y? t /2 s ywhere s y = s n and t /2 is a t value based on (n-1) degrees of freedomSubstitution (TAB #8): 50.53793 ? 2.074 * 6.334616 = (37.39993642, 63.67592358)Substitution (TAB #2): 5.316607 ? 2.074 * 0.6332737 = (4.003197346, 6.630016654)Conclusion: The absolute value of the residuals is 50.5 and the percentage of error is 5.3%. Therefore with 95% confidence, we can say that the mean absolute error falls within 37 and 64 deaths with an error ratio of between 4% and 7%. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSAlthough there seems to several problems including a low R?, severe multicollinearity, influential observations and problems with linearity and variability, the model is deemed to be a good estimator/predictor of mortality. Obviously improvements such as better data collection (though an controlled experiment), larger sample size, multicollinearity analysis (inclusion and exclusion of different variables) and data transformation analysis could result in better model prediction. However, analysis of this type is extremely time consuming and is recommended only if additional funds can be generated.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Political Philosophy US Declaration of Independence

Introduction Legitimate political authority is that which is derived from the consent given by the people to be governed. This is based on Locke’s explanation in which he applies the social contract technique. The authority may, however, be withdrawn when a state interferes with or reduces the freedom to be enjoyed by subjects (Mukherjee Ramaswamy 2001).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Political Philosophy: US Declaration of Independence specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the assumption of legitimate political power, a state has the right to develop laws and measures to be used for the purpose of controlling and conserving individual or public property. In certain instances, the state may use the community to ensure that stipulated laws are well respected and adhered to for the sake of every person. Typically, legitimate political power is controlled by trust and the entire community is expected to play a big role in stipulating the intentions. Freedom and Nature of Political Authority Generally, the legitimacy of any state has to do with the right the state has to control its subjects (Corbett 2009, p. 45). This right and its correlative obligations constitute a special moral relationship between the state and each individual who consents. In Lockean’s view, the justification of a state ultimately gives us moral reasons to refrain from undermining it. Ordinarily, it gives subjects moral reasons to positively support the state or perhaps promote the existence of similar states. Seemingly, justice and happiness of others look like ends that may require positive promotion by all moral agents. However, the justification of a state in this manner cannot form the basis of any special moral relationship between it and its subjects. Ordinarily, no single individual can be made to succumb to another without his or her own consent (Simmons 2001, p. 129). Ostensibly, the legitimacy of political power springs from the morals that often exist in societies. Subjects, therefore, have a moral duty to obey. However, Locke also offers a different and quite general argument for the moral and prudential preferences of states ruled by the limited governments to life in the state of nature (Jahanbegloo 2004, p. 32). This argument is plainly addressed to those who maintain that the state in any form is morally or prudentially inferior to life without the state.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, state legitimacy is the logical correlation of various obligations, including the subjects’ political obligations. A state’s legitimacy right is in part a right held specifically against the subjects bound by any state imposed duties arising from morally significant relations (Rawls 2009, p. 23). It follows, therefore, that state legitimacy may be comp lete or partial, depending on whether such relations hold with all or only with some of those against whom the state enforces the duties it imposes. By and large, governments can presumably be illegitimate even where the states they govern are not. According to Estlund (2012, p. 35), however, state and legitimacy seem not to be independent of one another, since an illegitimate state could not have a legitimate government. Arguably, states earn their legitimacy by virtue of the consent of their members. This consent empowers a central authority to create a viable political society for the benefit of everyone. The fact that a state is legitimate with respect to a subject typically results in the subject having feelings, beliefs, or attitudes that generate allegiance and support. It is important to note that a state may actually be legitimate with respect to its subjects without receiving much or any support from the subjects. This is, however, pegged on the fact that subjects may be s ufficiently immoral, deceived, stupid, overwhelmed, weak-willed, or manipulated. As noted by Simmons (2001, p. 134), it is correct and perfectly natural to say that a state is legitimate, but unstable, unpopular, or unsupported. When people fail to uphold a state due to their own shortcomings rather than to its lack of moral authority, this cannot reasonably be described as a reduction of its legitimacy. It is a mistake, then, to focus in an account of state legitimacy on the attitudes of subjects or on the capacity of a state to produce or sustain these attitudes. This is insofar as it is the positive attitudes and beliefs of subjects that reliably produce their compliance with and support for states or regimes, instead of the nature of those actual relations with the state that obligate them to support it and give it the right to rule them.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Political Philosophy: US Declaration of Independence specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In order to explain the origin of political power, Locke began with a description of the state of nature (Nyquist 2013, p. 51). Without being compelled by anyone or getting pressure from any external source, individuals became political subjects by choice. Despite the existence of a political society, individuals were still allowed the right to privacy. This dichotomy between the state and society, and between the private and public, was fundamental to Locke’s theorizing. Since then, it has become an integral part of the Western intellectual tradition. Locke rejected Filmer’s biblical account of the origins of political power without abandoning religious foundations. His theory rested on a firm and explicit moral relationship between the human being and God. Locke saw this shared duty to God to preserve one’s self as part of God’s creation as the basic moral law of nature, which existed in the pre-political order or the state of nature. He tried to show that political power could be understood only if it was derived from a state in which all individuals were perfectly free to do, with regard to their person and possessions, what they thought fit within the bounds of the laws of nature. Locke was quite categorical that God had made everything for subsistence and not for waste (Mukherjee Ramaswamy 2001). Locke further argued that an individual’s life was not his own, but was given by God as a trust, meaning that human being have no right to destroy or kill themselves. They are not permitted to destroy, kill, rob, or enslave other beings who are considered equal in the presence of God. In Locke’s arguments, political authority, like all moral claims, is ultimately based on religious obligations, which are the source of all morality. Although his arguments are politically radical, they are quite far from being secular. Unlike Hobbes who argued for an unlimited right of natur e that each individual can claim, Locke stresses on a natural duty of self preservation owed to God for having created us (Hobbes et al. 1999). Certainly, this duty rules out conflict, for not only do we need to preserve ourselves, but we also need to perceive the fact that we are all equal before God. As such, the state of nature is moral. For Locke, political authority is not mere power, but power with right.Advertising Looking for essay on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This right can only be derived from an already existing right, and because individuals have no right to give away their duty to preserve themselves, they cannot morally or logically grant rightful power to an absolute authority. Locke considers any form of supreme power as being illegitimate, and sees the various arguments presented by Filmer’s as wrong and wicked. Generally, Locke’s description of the state of nature is not as gloomy and pessimistic as Hobbes’. The state of nature is not of license, for though the individual is free from any superior power, he or she is still subject to the laws of nature. The laws of nature are known to human beings through the power of reason, which directs them towards their proper interests. Besides natural rights, human beings also have natural duties to discharge. Liberty, for Locke, is not the freedom to do what one chooses, but to act within the bounds of the laws of nature. Freedom presupposes order and is possible onl y within a framework of law. To a very extent, law helps to keep individuals from being subject to the arbitrary will of others. Natural rights act as constraining factors on the powers of the state, once these are established through a contract between individuals. In Locke’s view, personal independence and freedom are fundamental human rights. No one has a right to coerce or dominate another person in the state of nature (Locke 1996, p. 26). Everyone has an equal right to his or her natural freedom without being subjected to the will or authority of any other individual. In his clarification, Locke argues that the laws of nature are those that are dictated by reason. Since rights and duties are derived from the laws of nature, the most important of these is the right to hold others responsible for a breach of law and to punish them accordingly. Although Locke categorically rejects the right of a person to kill one’s self, he grants the right to inflict penalties, inc luding death penalty, on those who violate the laws in general. Locke explicitly rejects the right of the individual to commit suicide and murder. As noted by Ward (2010, p. 105), the compulsion to constitute a civil society is to protect and preserve freedom and to enlarge it. The state of nature is one of liberty and equality, but it is also one where peace is not secure, being constantly upset by the corruption and viciousness of degenerate men. Apparently, it lacks three important wants. First, there is the want of an established, settled, known law. There is also the want of a known and indifferent judge, and finally, the want of an executive power to enforce just decisions. Through the state of nature, Locke tries to explain the meaning and importance of authority, namely that human beings came together to ensure the observance of the laws of nature, to guarantee the greater possibility of impartiality in the implementation and execution of rules that govern common life, and t hereby increase the chance of peace that impartiality entails. Locke brings out the perils of human partiality, and how absolute power makes partiality potentially dangerous (Grant 2010, p. 63). Flattery and servility only makes it worse. He recognized the tremendous potentiality of power for making human life better, but fears that it has to be entrusted only to those who are responsible towards those on whom it is exercised. Ostensibly, most societies are based on force rather than right (Mack 2009, p. 16). Political authority is a trust, and if the terms of the trust are violated, the community has the right to take remedial measures in order to preserve itself. It is on these grounds that he objects Hobbes’ argument that only total order can provide for commodious living. It does not seem credible that people who do not trust one another can entrust an all powerful sovereign to safeguard their interests. He found it objectionable that there are no safety measures against potential violence and oppression of absolute authority. Through a contract, individuals consent to submit to the majority rule and organize themselves as a community or civil society. They surrender their powers partially, namely the three specific rights and constitute the natural right to enforce the laws of nature. Once a civil society is established, the individuals establish a government to act as a judge in the nature of a fiduciary power for promoting certain ends. Conclusion As can be deduced from the preceding discussion, Locke advocates for a limited sovereign state. Certainly, reason and experience have taught him that political absolutism is untenable. Describing the characteristics of a good state, Locke says that it exists for those who form it, and not the vice versa. It has to be based on the consent of the people subject to the constitution and the rule of law. It is limited in two ways. First, its powers are derived from the people and are held in trust and, secon dly, it is subject to natural laws and individual rights. Reference List Corbett, RJ 2009, The Lockean Commonwealth, State University of New York, Albany. Estlund, D 2012, The Oxford Handbook of Political Philosophy, Oxford University Press, New York. Grant, RW 2010, John Locke’s Liberalism, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Hobbes, T, John, B, Vere, C 1999, Hobbes and Bramhall on Liberty and Necessity, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. Jahanbegloo, R 2004, Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity, Lexington Books, Oxford, UK. Locke, J 1996, Some Thoughts Concerning Education: And, Of the Conduct of the Understanding, Hackett Publishing, Indianapolis, Indiana. Mack, E 2009, John Locke, Continuum International Publishing Group, New York, NY. Mukherjee, S Ramaswamy, S 2004, History Of Political Thought A: Plato To Marx, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India. Nyquist, M 2013, Arbitrary Rule: Slavery, Tyranny, and the Power of Life and Death, University of Chicago P ress, Chicago. Rawls, J 2009, Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Simmons, AJ 2001, Justification and Legitimacy: Essays on Rights and Obligations, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. Ward, L 2010, John Locke and Modern Life, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. This essay on Political Philosophy: US Declaration of Independence was written and submitted by user Paige Key to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Grumman F9F Panther in the Korean War

Grumman F9F Panther in the Korean War Having had success in building fighters for the US Navy during World War II with models such as the F4F Wildcat, F6F Hellcat, and F8F Bearcat, Grumman began work on its first jet aircraft in 1946. Responding to a request for a jet-powered night fighter, Grummans first effort, dubbed G-75, intended to utilize four Westinghouse J30 jet engines mounted in the wings. The large number of engines was necessary as the output of early turbojets was low. As the design progressed, advances in technology saw the number of engines reduced to two. Designated XF9F-1, the night fighter design lost a competition to the Douglas XF3D-1 Skyknight. As a precaution, the US Navy ordered two prototypes of the Grumman entry on April 11, 1946. Recognizing that the XF9F-1 had key flaws, such as a lack of space for fuel, Grumman commenced evolving the design into a new aircraft. This saw the crew reduced from two to one and the elimination of night-fighting equipment. The new design, the G-79, moved forward as a single-engine, single-seat day fighter. The concept impressed the US Navy which amended the G-75 contract to include three G-79 prototypes. Development Assigned the designation XF9F-2, the US Navy requested that two of the prototypes be powered by the Rolls-Royce Nene centrifugal-flow turbojet engine. During this time, work was moving forward to allow Pratt Whitney to build the Nene under license as the J42. As this had not been completed, the US Navy asked that the third prototype be powered by a General Electric/Allison J33. The XF9F-2 first flew on November 21, 1947 with Grumman test pilot Corwin Corky Meyer at the controls and was powered by one of the Rolls-Royce engines. The XF9F-2 possessed a mid-mounted straight-wing with leading edge and trailing edge flats. Intakes for the engine were triangular in shape and situated in wing root. The elevators were mounted high on the tail. For landing, the aircraft utilized a tricycle landing gear arrangement and a stinger retractable arresting hook. Performing well in testing, it proved capable of 573 mph at 20,000 feet. As trials moved forward, it was found that the aircraft still lacked the necessary fuel storage. To combat this issue, permanently mounted wingtip fuel tanks were mounted to the XF9F-2 in 1948. The new aircraft was named Panther and mounted a base armament of four 20mm cannon which were aimed using a Mark 8 computing optical gunsight. In addition to the guns, the aircraft was capable of carrying a mix of bombs, rockets, and fuel tanks under its wings. In total, the Panther could mount 2,000 pounds of ordnance or fuel externally, though the due to a lack of power from the J42, F9Fs seldom launched with a full load. Production: Entering service in May 1949 with VF-51, the F9F Panther passed its carrier qualifications later that year. While the first two variants of the aircraft, the F9F-2 and F9F-3, differed only in their power plants (J42 vs. J33), the F9F-4 saw the fuselage lengthened, tail enlarged, and the inclusion of the Allison J33 engine. This was later superseded by the F9F-5 which used the same airframe but incorporated a license-built version of the Rolls-Royce RB.44 Tay (Pratt Whitney J48). While the F9F-2 and F9F-5 became the main production models of the Panther, reconnaissance variants (F9F-2P and F9F-5P) were also constructed. Early in the Panthers development, concern arose regarding the aircrafts speed. As a result, a swept-wing version of the aircraft was also designed. Following early engagements with the MiG-15 during the Korean War, work was accelerated and the F9F Cougar produced. First flying in September 1951, the US Navy viewed the Cougar as a derivative of the Panther hence its designation as F9F-6. Despite the accelerated development timeline, F9F-6s did not see combat in Korea. Specifications (F9F-2 Panther): General Length: 37 ft. 5 in.Wingspan: 38 ft.Height: 11 ft. 4 in.Wing Area: 250 ft ²Empty Weight: 9,303 lbs.Loaded Weight: 14,235 lbs.Crew: 1 Performance Power Plant: 2 Ãâ€" Pratt Whitney J42-P-6/P-8 turbojetCombat Radius: 1,300 milesMax. Speed: 575 mphCeiling: 44,600 ft. Armament 4 Ãâ€" 20 mm M2 cannon6 Ãâ€" 5 in. rockets on underwing hardpoints or 2,000 lbs. of bomb Operational History: Joining the fleet in 1949, the F9F Panther was the US Navys first jet fighter. With the US entry into the Korean War in 1950, the aircraft immediately saw combat over the peninsula. On July 3, a Panther from USS Valley Forge (CV-45) flown by Ensign E.W. Brown scored the aircrafts first kill when he downed a Yakovlev Yak-9 near Pyongyang, North Korea. That fall, Chinese MiG-15s entered the conflict. The fast, swept-wing fighter out-classed the US Air Forces F-80 Shooting Stars as well as older piston-engine aircraft such as the F-82 Twin Mustang. Though slower than the MiG-15, US Navy and Marine Corps Panthers proved capable of combating the enemy fighter. On November 9, Lieutenant Commander William Amen of VF-111 downed a MiG-15 for the US Navys first jet fighter kill. Due to the MiGs superiority, the Panther was forced to hold the line for part of the fall until the USAF could rush three squadrons of the new North American F-86 Sabre to Korea. During this time, the Panther was in such demand that the  Navy Flight Demonstration Team (The Blue Angels) was forced to turn over its F9Fs for use in combat. As the Sabre increasingly took over the air superiority role, the Panther began to see extensive use as a ground attack aircraft due to its versatility and hefty payload. Famous pilots of the aircraft included future astronaut John Glenn and Hall of Famer Ted Williams who flew as wingmen in VMF-311. The F9F Panther remained the US Navy and Marine Corps primary aircraft for the duration of the fighting in Korea. As jet technology rapidly advanced, the F9F Panther began to be replaced in American squadrons in the mid-1950s. While the type was withdrawn from frontline service by the US Navy in 1956, it remained active with the Marine Corps until the following year. Though used by reserve formations for several years, the Panther also found use as a drone and drone tug into the 1960s. In 1958, the United States sold several F9Fs to Argentina for use aboard their carrier ARA Independencia (V-1). These remained active until 1969. A successful aircraft for Grumman, the F9F Panther was the first of several jets the company provided for the US Navy, with the most famous being the F-14 Tomcat.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Roman Persecutions of Christians Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Roman Persecutions of Christians - Essay Example Many historians are of the opinion, that the Romans believed that the neglect of the old gods who had made Rome strong, was responsible for the disasters that Rome faced. Is it then safe to assume that the persecutions of Christians, stemmed from a distrust of something alien to the Romans, or were there other causes for these persecutions? The persecutions began slowly but after the middle of the third century, were initiated intensively by some of the Roman emperors. In the beginning, these persecutions were generally a result of personal hostilities between people, where the real issues were hidden behind the excuse of their being of a different faith. However, slowly Christians began to be looked upon as people who took part in weird rites, like partaking of Christ’s flesh and blood, that was mistaken for cannibalism. The distrust grew as Christians refused to take part in the pagan rites of sacrifice to Roman gods, and to the emperor who was considered a semi divine being . This was considered an insult to the gods who looked after the well being of the people, and therefore endangered the empire.There were also other reasons why the people considered the Christians unpatriotic. The Romans took pride in their Roman citizenship, while the Christians declared that they were citizens of heaven. They also shrank from obligations of public and military service. However, a closer look at the events that preceded the persecutions, paints a different picture. Persecutions were generally sparked off by certain events that went against an emperor. Is it then possible that periods of crisis like a threatening invasion, or an economic or political instability, were triggers that led to these persecutions? This seems to have been the case in the persecutions that took place when a disastrous fire broke out in Rome during the reign of Nero. The first persecution sanctioned by an emperor was in A.D. 64 by the eccentric emperor Nero. During the early years of Neroâ €™s reign, he was guided by the wisdom of his tutor Seneca and Burrus. By A.D. 62, Burrus died and Seneca retired, after which the wise constraints on Nero’s eccentric character were gone, and Nero was free to indulge himself . The costly war against Parthia and the revolts in Britain had drained the treasury and the Roman empire was in turmoil. Against this background, Nero was more interested in poetry, music and such other pursuits, and surrounded himself with frivolous and riotous companions that offended the public. His extravagances only served to further drain the imperial coffers, and taking advantage of his inattention to affairs of state, rebellions began to erupt. In the midst of these distressing events, Rome suffered the most disastrous fire in its history. Nero had become so unpopular, that people believed he had started the fire in order to be able to rebuild the city in the Greek style that he greatly admired, and also build a new and grand palace for hims elf. Although historians are unanimous in their opinion that Nero gave help to those left homeless in the fire and also rebuilt the city excellently; the rumor that the fire was the act of the self indulgence of the ruthless tyrant Nero, refused to die down. Unable to find other means of convincing his people that he was not responsible for the fire, Nero played on the fears of the people and made scapegoats of the Christians,

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Accounting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Accounting - Essay Example It also caters to a wide variety of financial services like short and long term financing, credit cards, working capital, etc. UPS was founded in 1907 and has its origin in Atlanta, Georgia (United Parcel Services, Inc. (UPS) n.d.). Companies, big or small need to analyze how their business is faring. With big organizations like FedEx Express and UPS, whose operations are from continent to continent, the need to inform its creditors and stockholders how their respective financial operations are faring is essential to attract more solid investments in order to maintain overhead costs, increase yearly profits and gain the public trust for a better flow of business. To identify and project a company’s financial condition, financial ratio analysis is often used to evaluate the financial stability of a certain entity. Financial ration analysis falls into the following categories (Credit Research Foundation, 1999): By taking a look at the above sample computations for FedEx Express and UPS, the ratios indicate that both companies are adequately liquid and could cover up for any financial loss without losing their creditors’ investments. Using financial ratios to directly compare the financial standing of companies using a different accounting method or flow different accounting practices is not feasible. However, there is no world wide standard for calculating the data But if investment is to be made, a good investor would not only look at the financial statements and calculate ratios. Other factors must be taken into consideration like how long has the company been around, the stock value of the company and the coverage of its operations. Given the history of FedEx and UPS it could be seen that United Parcels Services, Inc. has been around longer being founded in 1907 while FedEx was found in 1971. However, investors also look at the fluctuation of stock prices of the company shares. The stock